Santiago Sierra, el artista, encendió la polémica en ARCO con su obra, un ninot de cuatro metros y medio de alto de Don Felipe VI. La peculiaridad de esta obra es que en el contrato de compra figura, aparte del precio, que asciende a 200.000 euros; que la misma ha de ser quemada en el plazo de un año, siendo tal evento documentado quedando el vídeo como performance.
Pero ¿Es esa cláusula legal? ¿Sería una clausula nula o anulable?
En nuestra opinión adelantamos que consideramos la cláusula del contrato de compraventa como nula por lo que expondremos a continuación.
En primer lugar examinamos si podría considerarse un delito quemar una imagen del Rey.
Para responder a esa pregunta nos remitimos a un caso de 2007, cuando el Tribunal Constitucional negó el amparo a Jaume Roura Capellera y Enric Stern Taulats, quienes quemaron una imagen del rey Juan Carlos y la reina Sofía, por lo que fueron condenados por la sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional de 5 diciembre 2008, a 15 meses de prisión por injurias al Rey Juan Carlos. Los magistrados de la Audiencia Nacional entendieron que los derechos de libertad de expresión también tienen límites pues la Constitución no ampara el derecho al insulto y por ende la doctrina ha dejado fuera de la cobertura constitucional “las expresiones indudablemente injuriosas o sin relación con las ideas u opiniones que se expongan y que resulten innecesarias para la exposición de las mismas“.
Por lo tanto, quemar una imagen del Rey implica la comisión de un delito de Calumnias o injurias a la corona contemplado en el artículo 490.3 y 491.2 del Código Penal:
Artículo 490.
3.El que calumniare o injuriare al Rey, a la Reina o a cualquiera de sus ascendientes o descendientes, a la Reina consorte o al consorte de la Reina, al Regente o a algún miembro de la Regencia, o al Príncipe o a la Princesa de Asturias, en el ejercicio de sus funciones o con motivo u ocasión de éstas, será castigado con la pena de prisión de seis meses a dos años si la calumnia o injuria fueran graves, y con la de multa de seis a doce meses si no lo son.
Artículo 491.
2.Se impondrá la pena de multa de seis a veinticuatro meses al que utilizare la imagen del Rey o de la Reina o de cualquiera de sus ascendientes o descendientes, o de la Reina consorte o del consorte de la Reina, o del Regente o de algún miembro de la Regencia, o del Príncipe o de la Princesa de Asturias, de cualquier forma que pueda dañar el prestigio de la Corona
En este caso debemos hacer una analogía, ya que si bien el ninot de Santiago Sierra no es una foto, es una imagen clara del Rey Felipe VI, incluso huele al monarca, porque empleó la misma colonia que éste. Así pues, quemarlo es como quemar cualquier imagen y encajaría dentro del delito de injurias o Calumnias.
Por otro lado, visto que quemar el ninot del rey implica un delito, ¿Es de obligatorio cumplimiento la cláusula que obliga al comprador a quemarlo? ¿Qué ocurre si firmas la cláusula de compra?
Ocurrir, no ocurre absolutamente nada, la cláusula es nula, puedes comprarlo y quedarte en tu jardín esperando a que el artista te demande por no haber cumplido el contrato sin más represalia que la amenaza.
¿Por qué es nula la cláusula?
Como dice el artículo 1.255 del código Civil:
Los contratantes pueden establecer los pactos, cláusulas y condiciones que tengan por conveniente, siempre que no sean contrarios a las leyes, a la moral ni al orden público.
Por lo que, como quemar la imagen del rey implica colaborar en un delito de injurias o Calumnias a la corona, dicha cláusula es nula en tanto es una cláusula manifiestamente ilegal o constitutivas de delito. (STS de 28 de febrero de 2004, STS de 31 de mayo de 2005,  entre otras).
Puede que Santiago Sierra supiera de la ilegalidad de la cláusula, pero era una buena oportunidad de crear polémica y volver a poner sus obras en el punto de mira, provocar y darse publicidad.
Ya que si el objetivo final es crear la performance de la quema, ¿Por qué no hacerla él mismo y poner la performance a la venta después?
Nunca lo sabremos…

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